We have compiled a list of health care service delivery institutions, health professional education programs and organizations that already use and/or promote a social accountability as an equity-oriented health policy strategy.

Here you will find resources for social accountability in health care service delivery and in health professional education that we have found useful in charting the path forward for the SAFE for Health Institutions Project.

Institutions that Apply or Promote Social Accountability

In healthcare service delivery

In health professional education

Other Organizations

Social Accountability Tools in Health Professional Education

Social Accountability Awards in Health Professional Education

Publications / Articles

In healthcare service delivery

Markham, R., Hunt, M., Woollard, R. et al. Addressing rural and Indigenous health inequities in Canada through socially accountable health partnerships. BMJ open. 2021;11:e048053. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-048053.

Anawati A. Social Accountability as the Framework for the Moral Obligations of Health Institutions: A Call to Action for an Academic Healthcare Institutions. Social Innovations Journal. 2019 Jul 27; (55).

Buchman S, Woollard R, Meili R, Goel R. Practising social accountability from theory to action. Canadian Family Physician. 2016 Jan;62:15–8.

College of Family Physicians of Canada. A new vision for Canada: Family Practice—The Patient’s Medical Home 2019 – Community Adaptiveness and Social Accountability. Mississauga, ON: College of Family Physicians of Canada; 2019.

Goel R, Buchman S, Meili R, Woollard R. Social accountability at the micro level one patient at a time. Canadian Family Physician. 2016 Apr;62:287–90.

Meilie R, Buchman S. Social accountability: at the heart of family medicine. Canadian Family Physician. 2013;59:335-6.

Woollard R, Buchman S, Meili R, Strasser R, Alexander I, Goel R. Social accountability at the meso level into the community. Canadian Family Physician. 2016 Jul;62:538–40.

McDonal WA. Social accountability Nunavut perspective. Canadian Family Physician. 2016 May, 62(5);377-379.

Meili R, Buchman S, Goel R, Woollard R. Social accountability at the macro level framing the big picture. Canadian Family Physician. 2016 Oct;62:785–8.

Smitherman HC, Baker RS, Wilson MR. Socially Accountable Academic Health Centers: Pursuing a Quadripartite Mission. Vol. 94, Academic Medicine. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2019. p. 176–81.

In health professional education

Boelen C, Heck J. Defining and measuring the social accountability of medical schools. Geneva; 1995

Hogenbirk JC, Robinson DR, Hill ME, Pong RW, Minore B, Adams K, et al. The economic contribution of the Northern Ontario School of Medicine to communities participating in distributed medical education. Can J Rural Med. 2015;20(1):25–32.

Hogenbirk J, Timony P, French M, Strasser R, Pong R, Cervin C, et al. Milestones on the social accountability journey family medicine practice location of Northern Ontario School of Medicine graduates. Canadian Family Physician. 2016 Mar;62.

Strasser R, Hogenbirk JC, Minore B, Marsh DC, Berry S, McCready WG, et al. Transforming health professional education through social accountability: Canada’s Northern Ontario School of Medicine. Medical Teacher. 2013 Jun;35(6):490–6.

Woollard R. First world summit on social accountability: Building health systems based on people’s needs. Hammammet, Tunisa: Global Consensus on the Social Accountability of Medical Schools; 2017

Woolley T, Cristobal F, Siega-Sur JJ, Ross S, Neusy AJ, Halili SD, et al. Positive implications from socially accountable, community-engaged medical education across two Philippines regions. Rural and Remote Health. 2018 Feb 1;18(1).

Woolley T, Halili SD, Siega-Sur JL, Cristobal FL, Reeve C, Ross SJ, et al. Socially accountable medical education strengthens community health services. Medical Education. 2018 Apr 1;52(4):391–403.

Woolley T, Larkins S, sen Gupta T. Career choices of the first seven cohorts of JCU MBBS graduates: Producing generalists for regional, rural and remote northern Australia. Rural and Remote Health. 2019 Apr 1;19(2).

Woolley T, Middleton L, Kavishe B, Erio T. A Social Return on Investment Analysis of Touch Foundation’s Treat & Train external clinical rotations program for Medical and Nursing students in the Lake Zone of Tanzania. New York; 2019

Toolkit Methodology Resources

Dalglish SL, Khalid H, McMahon SA. Document analysis in health policy research: The READ approach. Health Policy and Planning. 2020 Dec 1;35(10):1–8.

Dozois Elizabeth, Langlois M, Blanchet-Cohen N. A practitioner’s guide to developmental evaluation. J.W. McConnell Family Foundation and the International Institute for Child Rights and Development; 2011 [cited 2021 Jul 21]. 77.

Elliott C. Locating the energy for change: an introduction to appreciative inquiry. Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development; 1999

Gamble JAA. A Developmental Evaluation Primer About the Foundation A Developmental Evaluation Primer. 2008.

Patton M. Developmental evaluation: Applying complexity concepts to enhance innovation and use. New York: Guildford Press; 2010.